- The authorities are appropriately maintaining the peg of the Iraqi dinar to the U.S. dollar, which provides a key anchor to the economy.
- Measures to prevent money-laundering, counter the financing of terrorism, and strengthen the anti-corruption legislation need to be implemented.
- The authorities are implementing a sizable fiscal adjustment, mostly through retrenchment of inefficient capital expenditure while protecting social spending.
The completion of the second review allows the authorities to draw the equivalent of SDR 584.2 million (about US$ 824.8 million), bringing total disbursements to SDR 1494.2 million about US$ 2109.7 million. The SDR 3.831 billion arrangement (about US$5.34 billion at the time of approval of the arrangement) was approved in July, 2016 (See Press Release No. 16/321) and the first review was completed on December 5, 2016 ( See Press Release No. 16/540).
The Executive Board today also concluded the 2017 Article IV Consultation with Iraq. A respective press release will be issued separately.
Following the Executive Board’s decision, Mr David Lipton, First Deputy Managing Director, issued the following statement:
The economic policies implemented by the Iraqi authorities to deal with the shocks facing Iraq—the armed conflict with ISIS and the ensuing humanitarian crisis and the collapse in oil prices—are appropriate. In the fiscal area, the authorities are implementing a sizable fiscal adjustment, mostly through retrenchment of inefficient capital expenditure while protecting social spending. The authorities are appropriately maintaining the peg of the Iraqi dinar to the U.S. dollar, which provides a key anchor to the economy. Performance under the Stand-By Arrangement has been weak in some key areas, but understandings have been reached on sufficient corrective actions to keep the program on track. Resolute implementation of the authorities’ program, together with strong international financial support, will be key.
Further fiscal consolidation measures are needed in 2017-18 to keep the program on track. The composition of the fiscal adjustment should be improved over time by increasing non-oil revenue and reducing current expenditure. In addition, reforming the electricity sector and state-owned enterprises will make room for larger and more effective investment expenditure that supports growth and job creation.
Significantly improving public financial management will be important. Arrears need to be assessed and paid following verification, and expenditure commitment and cash management should be strengthened to prevent the accumulation of new arrears.
Measures to bolster financial sector stability include strengthening the legal framework of the Central Bank of Iraq, restructuring state-owned banks, and eliminating an exchange restriction and a multi-currency practice. Measures to prevent money-laundering, counter the financing of terrorism, and strengthen the anti-corruption legislation also need to be implemented.
|Table 1. Iraq: Selected Economic and Financial Indicators, 2013–22|
|(Quota: SDR 1,663.8 million)|
|(Population: 37.5 million; 2016 est.)|
|(Poverty rate: 23 percent, 2014)|
|(Main export: Crude oil)|
|Economic growth and prices|
|Real GDP (percentage change)||7.6||0.7||4.8||11.0||-0.4||2.9||1.7||2.0||2.1||2.1|
|Non-oil real GDP (percentage change)||12.4||-3.9||-9.6||-8.1||1.5||2.0||3.0||3.9||4.0||4.1|
|GDP deflator (percentage change)||0.0||-0.7||-26.9||-12.9||12.9||2.3||2.9||3.8||4.4||4.7|
|GDP per capita (US$)||7,021||6,517||4,869||4,533||4,958||5,091||5,194||5,362||5,569||5,806|
|GDP (in US$ billion)||234.6||234.7||179.8||171.7||192.7||202.9||212.3||224.8||239.5||256.2|
|Oil production (mbpd) 1/||3.0||3.1||3.7||4.6||4.6||4.7||4.8||4.8||4.9||4.9|
|Oil exports (mbpd) 1/||2.4||2.6||3.4||3.8||3.8||3.9||3.9||4.0||4.0||4.1|
|Iraq oil export prices (US$ pb)||102.9||96.5||45.9||35.6||45.3||45.4||44.9||45.2||45.9||47.1|
|Consumer price inflation (percentage change; average)||1.9||2.2||1.4||0.4||2.0||2.0||2.0||2.0||2.0||2.0|
|(In percent of GDP)|
|Gross domestic investment||26.9||25.7||24.4||20.6||19.7||19.1||18.6||18.2||18.2||18.0|
|Of which: public||17.4||18.0||15.1||11.4||11.1||10.5||9.8||9.3||9.1||8.8|
|Gross domestic consumption||69.5||69.9||81.6||87.8||86.4||85.1||85.3||84.3||83.4||82.2|
|Of which: public||21.0||18.3||22.3||22.9||23.7||22.2||21.1||19.7||18.3||16.9|
|Gross national savings||28.1||28.3||18.0||11.9||13.4||12.4||14.5||15.0||16.1||17.4|
|Of which: public||11.6||13.0||3.0||-2.3||6.6||6.3||8.7||8.9||9.9||11.1|
|Saving – Investment balance||1.1||2.6||-6.5||-8.7||-6.3||-6.7||-4.1||-3.2||-2.1||-0.6|
|(In percent of GDP, unless otherwise indicated)|
|Government revenue and grants||42.2||38.2||30.3||27.4||35.9||36.4||35.6||34.5||33.7||33.0|
|Government oil revenue||38.6||36.0||27.5||23.2||31.8||31.7||30.6||29.4||28.3||27.5|
|Government non-oil revenue||3.5||2.1||2.8||4.1||3.9||4.6||4.8||5.0||5.2||5.4|
|Expenditure, of which:||48.0||43.5||42.6||41.5||41.0||41.1||37.2||35.0||33.1||31.1|
|Primary fiscal balance||-5.4||-5.1||-11.7||-13.4||-3.8||-3.7||-0.5||0.7||1.8||3.1|
|Overall fiscal balance (including grants)||-5.8||-5.4||-12.3||-14.1||-5.1||-4.7||-1.7||-0.5||0.6||2.0|
|Non-oil primary fiscal balance (percent of non-oil GDP)||-67.6||-56.1||-45.1||-44.6||-47.8||-43.4||-39.6||-35.4||-32.0||-28.7|
|Tax revenue/non-oil GDP (in percent)||1.9||1.7||1.0||3.9||4.6||5.5||5.6||5.6||5.7||5.9|
|Total government debt (in percent of GDP)||31.2||32.0||54.5||66.7||63.8||65.3||64.3||61.6||57.5||52.1|
|Total government debt (in US$ billion)||73.1||75.2||98.0||114.6||122.9||132.6||136.5||138.4||137.7||133.4|
|External government debt (in percent of GDP)||25.3||24.8||36.8||39.3||38.3||40.9||40.4||36.9||32.8||27.9|
|External government debt (in US$ billion)||59.3||58.1||66.1||67.5||73.7||83.0||85.7||82.9||78.5||71.4|
|(In percent, unless otherwise indicated)|
|Growth in reserve money||12.6||-9.6||-12.6||7.1||1.3||3.6||4.0||5.8||5.8||5.9|
|Growth in broad money||15.9||3.6||-9.0||7.2||4.1||4.9||4.0||6.5||7.1||8.3|
|Policy interest rate (end of period)||6.0||6.0||6.0||4.0||…||…||…||…||…||…|
|(In percent of GDP, unless otherwise indicated)|
|Exports of goods||38.3||39.6||31.4||29.1||32.4||32.0||30.7||29.6||28.5||27.8|
|Imports of goods||-28.4||-28.7||-31.5||-30.9||-31.7||-30.2||-29.0||-27.4||-26.0||-24.4|
|Overall external balance||-1.3||-10.0||-7.1||-3.6||-0.9||-2.7||-1.1||-0.6||0.2||0.8|
|Gross reserves (in US$ billion) 2/||77.8||66.7||53.7||45.2||41.4||40.8||39.7||37.1||36.0||36.5|
|In months of imports of goods and services||10.8||10.9||9.2||6.7||6.2||6.0||5.8||5.4||5.2||5.3|
|Exchange rate (dinar per US$; period average)||1,166||1,166||1,166||1,180||…||…||…||…||…||…|
|Real effective exchange rate (percent change, end of period) 3/||6.6||4.7||6.8||5.9||…||…||…||…||…||…|
|Sources: Iraqi authorities; and IMF staff estimates and projections.|
|1/ Includes Kurdistan Regional Governement (0.55 mbpd) only in projection.|
|2/ Starting 2014 includes US$ account balances from oil revenues.|
|3/ Positive means appreciation.|
IMF Communications Department
Source: IMF Communications Department
PRESS OFFICER: Randa Elnagar
Phone: +1 202 623-7100Email: MEDIA@IMF.org